Male infertility is an increasing problem partly due to inherited genetic variations. Mutations in genes involved in formation of the sperm tail cause motility defects and thus male infertility. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the protein networks required for sperm differentiation. Sperm motility is produced through activation of the sperm flagellum, which core structure, the axoneme, resembles motile cilia. In addition to this, cytoskeletal axonemal structure sperm tail motility requires various accessory structures.
Sperm: 15 crazy things you should know
A semen analysis plural: semen analyses , also called " seminogram "  evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein. It is done to help evaluate male fertility , whether for those seeking pregnancy or verifying the success of vasectomy. Depending on the measurement method, just a few characteristics may be evaluated such as with a home kit or many characteristics may be evaluated generally by a diagnostic laboratory. Collection techniques and precise measurement method may influence results. The most common reasons for laboratory semen analysis in humans are as part of a couple's infertility investigation and after a vasectomy to verify that the procedure was successful.
Assessment of Human Sperm Cells Morphological Parameters
Auger, P. Jouannet, F. Can a standardized assessment of abnormal human sperm morphology provide additional useful information by identifying men with more severe disturbances in different types of abnormalities? Definition-based categorization of sperm head, midpiece and tail defects has shown how differently these abnormalities are distributed in fertile men and other groups of men, thus providing high and low thresholds, a starting point for diagnosis or research purposes. Several recent studies have reported indisputable genetic origins for various sperm defects.
Background: Sperm morphology is an important qualitative parameter in semen analysis. Aim: To assess qualitative defects in the semen with normal sperm counts. Setting and Design: This was a prospective and descriptive study done in a tertiary care center.